Bill Brandon

Senior Editor, The eLearning Guild

Bill Brandon is the editor of Learning Solutions. His experience in the learning and development field goes back to 1968, and in eLearning to 1984. He has developed and managed e-Learning in a variety of environments, from mainframes to desktops to online.

Latest by Bill Brandon

Learning Solutions Magazine Is Looking for Writers!
January 4, 2017

Learning Solutions Magazine intends to step up the pace of its publishing in 2017. To do that, we need more writers, and we hope that could be you! Here is a quick sketch of what we are looking for.

Leading the Target: Challenges for 2017
December 26, 2016

Is the time right for another disruption in the status quo for learning and development? Has something already tipped? Maybe the next disruption has already started, but not with technology per se. Change is coming—and it won’t always be what you expect. Here is a forecast for 2017.

A Passion for Empowering People: Adam Schwartz, Articulate Founder and CEO
November 16, 2016

Articulate just launched Articulate 360, a subscription offering with tools for the entire course development process. Included with Articulate 360 are all Articulate authoring apps, including the latest version of Storyline, plus new tools that make it easy to work with stakeholders and create multi-device courses. I interviewed Adam about his vision for the future and these new developments.

What I Learned at the Austin Game Conference about Game Creation and Virtual Reality
October 7, 2016

In late September, I attended the Austin Game Conference, which delivered the latest information about game development and virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR), and mixed reality (MR). Here are some highlights and tips from my notes.

Book Review: Michael Allen's Guide to e-Learning, 2nd Edition
September 21, 2016

Michael Allen’s Guide was originally published in 2003. The second edition has been released, containing significant changes from the original.

The eLearning Guild Launches FocusOn Learning 2016, Announces Awards
June 30, 2016

Hundreds attended the latest eLearning Guild conference in Austin at the beginning of June. FocusOn Learning continues the tradition of Guild conferences by providing leading-edge content in a highly interactive and engaging environment.

Learning Leaders: An Interview with Jane Bozarth
April 21, 2016

Dr. Jane Bozarth became a Guild Master at DevLearn 2013, and many readers know her for her column, “Nuts and Bolts,” in this magazine. We asked her about her favorite topics, about where she sees our profession going, and about how to thrive in the face of constant change. Enjoy the conversation and her insights!

Four Kinds of Work, Three Kinds of Learning
March 31, 2016

The natures of work and of the workplace are evolving rapidly in response to some very specific forces. This brief article looks at one possible outcome of this evolution, presents some key concepts about three types of learning, and suggests a challenge this presents to us as learning practitioners.

Book Review: Learning to Succeed, by Jason Wingard
March 30, 2016

Learning to Succeed explores the relationship between corporate strategy, operational planning, and human capital development. It is a high-level guide to gaining business advantage through corporate learning and development, and it demonstrates how to maximize continuous returns on investment.

So This Happened at Learning Solutions and Ecosystem 2016
March 24, 2016

Hundreds of eLearning professionals attended the Learning Solutions Conference & Expo and Ecosystem this year in Orlando, Florida. Find out what the conference offered, and why people attend every year as a “can’t miss” event!

Learning Leaders: An Interview with Chad Udell
March 15, 2016

This is our first interview in a series where we interview leaders in the field of eLearning. We start with Chad Udell, a Guild Master recognized for his accomplishments in mobile learning and in design of systems to leverage the power of technology.

Eight Tips for More Effective eLearning: Albert Bandura's Social Learning Theory
March 10, 2016

"Social learning" is about more than using social media to support collaboration and learning. It goes beyond how people use Facebook, Snapchat, Twitter, and other media. Here are some research-based tips to guide you to leveraging the technology infrastructure and social learning to bring about behavioral change and desired results.

Two Transformative Learning Strategies: Heutagogy and Personalization
March 7, 2016

The industrial-age model of instruction is working less and less well as traditional ways of working evolve and as technology facilitates self-determined learning. There are, however, more effective ways to learn that make use of that technology. Here are two powerful concepts that look to the present day and to the future!

Resources: Planning, Focus, and Engagement
January 21, 2016

In the face of ongoing, even disruptive, change, where should you focus in 2016? How can you engage and challenge learners more effectively? Here are solid best practices and fresh advice to guide you!

We Are Losing the Race Between Learning and Technology: What to Do About It
January 18, 2016

In more and more professions, employees struggle to keep up with advances in knowledge and practice, and we are not doing enough of the right things to help them in that effort. Essentially, learning is in a race with technology, and it is losing. In order to address the situation, here is a suggestion for reframing what we in L&D do.

Four Resources for 2016 Learning Technology Planning
January 7, 2016

Last week’s feature gave a high-level overview of technologies and areas of practice that can change your business and the position of learning and development in your organization. This article links to deeper dives into three of the topics in that feature and into ways to keep up with change.

Learning Support Technologies in 2016
December 28, 2015

Here are the trends that will make a difference to your success in 2016.

Two Resources for Managers for 2016: Map Your Learning Architecture and Drive Cultural Change
December 23, 2015

Managing Learning and Development will be even more challenging in 2016, due to the additional options for creation and delivery of learning, and the cultural changes arising outside of L&D. Here are two examples of ways to meet some of these difficult situations.

Tutorials: Using States to Save Development Time in Articulate Storyline
December 22, 2015

“The built-in states in Storyline objects can make it quick and easy to build interactivity into your eLearning. Here are two examples to make the point!”

Disruption, Hype, and Utility: Road Hazards for 2016
December 21, 2015

This isn’t a “crystal ball” vision that absolutely predicts what will happen in 2016, but it does point out two disruptive technologies that will definitely affect us in the learning field, and it offers suggestions to help you evaluate technologies you may be thinking about adopting.

Five Resources for Understanding and Leveraging Informal Learning
December 9, 2015

Is dealing with informal learning like trying to catch lightning in a bottle? We know that informal learning is important to performance, but it’s a moving target and we don’t always understand it very well. Here are three articles, a research report, and an Online Forum that may help you to get a handle on workplace learning.

Three Archived Presentations on the Use of Social Learning
December 3, 2015

The use of social technology as part of organizational learning strategy is a popular topic with readers of Learning Solutions Magazine. Here are three session recordings from the November 2015 Online Forum on using social technology.

New Content from The eLearning Guild: Online Events and DemoFest
November 25, 2015

These links to recent content in the Guild archives were hand-picked for you by the Guild staff. We hope you find them useful!

In Memoriam: Jay Cross
November 11, 2015

Jay Cross, called by many “the Johnny Appleseed of informal learning,” passed away on November 6, 2015.

Four Resources from DevLearn 2015, DemoFest, and Adobe Learning Summit 2015
October 28, 2015

These resources include mLearning hacks, strategies for designing virtual classroom events that ensure learning occurs, presentations of the winning DemoFest entries in 2015, and an eBook of tips from the DevLearn thought leaders. Enjoy!

Five Awesome Resources for eLearning Designers, Developers, and Project Managers (and a Raffle!)
October 20, 2015

Everybody wants to impress learners and clients. Project managers want to handle the “how-much-time-will-this-take” question in a way that creates clarity and confidence. Designers and developers want to deliver content and media that engages. Here are five great tips that you can use on your next project!

DevLearn 2015 Recap: Innovation in the Making
October 14, 2015

Over 2,800 eLearning professionals attended DevLearn this year, making it the largest gathering to date in The eLearning Guild’s history. Read about the award winners and find out how to see many of the presentations from the conference!

Five More Tips for Designers to Kick Off October
October 8, 2015

There’s more to creating engaging eLearning than just writing learning objectives and knowing how to use authoring software. People appreciate and respond to a good story, an unexpected surprise, or an eLearning design that gets their attention. Here are five tips that will help you achieve those results.

Get Your Game Together: Five Resources for Games and Gamification
October 7, 2015

Games and gamification are gaining increasing attention as ways to support and enhance learning, but it can be difficult to find good advice to guide their design. Fortunately, The eLearning Guild has many resources to help you out. Here are five of them.

Tips: LMS and Analytics, Game Design, Mobile Performance Support, Interactive Webinars!
October 1, 2015

Do you get full value from your Guild membership? The eLearning Guild event archives, the Research Library, and other curated information is loaded with useful professional information you won’t find anywhere else. Come take a look at four examples!

Five Resources for eLearning Developers: Little Tricks
September 30, 2015

An interactive checklist, mobile authoring, animated GIF creation, a spreadsheet template for quality assurance, and how to be your own voice-over artist. Maybe not something for every project, but you never know when you will need one of these. Put them in your toolkit!

Four Resources for SMAC Technologies: Social, Mobile, Analytics, Cloud
September 23, 2015

Our colleagues in the IT department began talking about SMAC technologies several years ago, and slowly these have been making their way into instructional design and development. Here are four selections from The eLearning Guild archives for your consideration.

Three Tutorials, a Case Study, and a Fun Infographic: Guild Links
September 16, 2015

Useful techniques for PowerPoint, Articulate Storyline, and Adobe Captivate, plus using scenario-based exams to better prepare tech-support and help-desk teams, and a fun little infographic on work life.

Five Resources: Tips for Strategic LMS Challenges
September 15, 2015

Learning management systems have been important for learning in many organizations for years, and they continue to be important as new technologies appear. However, there are new strategic questions that affect LMS selection and use. Here are five resources from The eLearning Guild’s archives that will provide examples and ideas that may match your challenges!

Book Review: Visual Design Solutions, by Connie Malamed
September 10, 2015

Connie Malamed has authored a new companion to her earlier book, Visual Language for Designers. This new book will give you all you need to create visuals for your eLearning with “production values” that will set it apart, head and shoulders above the rest. Learn (some would say “steal”) from the best. This book is that best.

Professional Development Tips from The eLearning Guild
September 3, 2015

The eLearning Guild offers more opportunities and resources for your professional development than can be easily counted, but here are 21 of them (maybe more than that) for your consideration.

Ten Resources: Getting Started with the Experience API and LRSs
September 2, 2015

Over the last year, the Experience API (xAPI or Tin Can) has come into its own, with many organizations implementing it as a key part of their eLearning practice. Here are 10 resources, from the archives and from the upcoming DevLearn 2015 Conference, that will help you follow in their footsteps.

New Content Links from The eLearning Guild (August 18, 2015)
August 18, 2015

New links to great content from The eLearning Guild, including a live event (requires registration). Other links to three videos: building your organization’s mobile strategy, tips for dealing with text shrink, and a DemoFest presentation on sales- staff training.

Two Resources: Building Your Design and Development Skills in September
August 18, 2015

Improving and expanding your skills is always a worthwhile investment! Regardless of your specific job title, level of experience, responsibilities, or organizational setting, the Guild Academy offers a broad range of educational opportunities that will help you master career-critical skills and knowledge.

New Content Links from The eLearning Guild (August 13, 2015)
August 13, 2015

New links to some of the latest content offered through The eLearning Guild. This week: curated industry content; tips on hot topics; creating depth and perspective; instructor-led delivery entirely by smartphone; and video for cutting-edge performance support.

New Guild Masters and mLearning DemoFest Winners Announced at mLearnCon
June 23, 2015

At the co-located 2015 events mLearnCon and Performance Support Symposium in Austin, Texas, The eLearning Guild announced two new Guild Masters. In addition, nine demonstrations were chosen as winners at the mLearning DemoFest held during mLearnCon.

Book Review: Ten Strategies for Building Community with Technology
April 21, 2015

Times change, and instructional methods change with them. One concept that instructional designers should become familiar with is that of the role of community in learning, and the necessity of learners feeling themselves involved in a community. A new book takes a strategic look at this approach and provides the necessary background you need to get started.

Book Review: Developing Human Capital, by Gene Pease, Bonnie Beresford, and Lew Walker
February 5, 2015

There is little doubt that, in order to play a strategic part in the future, learning and development (L&D) must measure results in terms of business benefit, and optimize those results. This means dealing in “big data” and going beyond ROI measures. Here is a step-by-step guide for L&D managers and executives.

Making Investments in People Count: Measurement, Alignment, and Optimization
February 2, 2015

Both human resources and learning and development are evolving, but at different speeds in different organizations: some quickly, some not so much. We hope they are becoming more strategic and more relevant, but how can we be sure we are doing the right things to make it so? This interview with Gene Pease offers an introduction to an evolving science and the analytics that are so important.

Book Review: The Successful Virtual Classroom
January 21, 2015

Darlene Christopher has written a book for new and experienced trainers alike that will guide them to delivery of instruction at a distance that is every bit as effective as it would be in the classroom. This one belongs on your shelf.

Hackathon! Design Gamified eLearning in Hours
November 24, 2014

Here is a different, creative way to kick off your eLearning design and development! Hackathons are events in which individuals with diverse backgrounds, from coding to graphic design to instructional design and management, can collaborate on a development project, including those involving games and gamification. Read the background in this article, and the story of a very recent example!

Book Review: The Accidental Instructional Designer, by Cammy Bean
June 17, 2014

Two years ago, Cammy Bean’s article, “The Accidental Instructional Designer,” became one of the most- read pieces we have published in the last 13 years. Now she has expanded that article into a guide that will help many others to become a happy accident. This one belongs on your shelf!

In Memoriam: Dr. Donald Kirkpatrick
May 15, 2014

Dr. Donald Kirkpatrick, professor emeritus, University of Wisconsin, and creator of the Kirkpatrick Four-level Evaluation Model, passed away May 9, 2014 at the age of 90. We remember his life and his contributions to the field of workplace learning.

What Are mLearning's Benefits, Challenges, Future?
May 14, 2014

In this interview, Peter Phillips, CEO of Unicorn Training Group, offers his insights into the business benefits of mobile learning, particularly for continuing professional development. He discusses what drives adoption of mobile learning, what impedes adoption, and what to do about change management.

Book Review: Show Your Work, by Jane Bozarth
May 8, 2014

Something is missing from your instructional content: The tacit knowledge that makes the difference in an expert’s performance. Jane Bozarth’s latest book will help you fill in that gap. Here is our review.

Book Review: Revolutionize Learning & Development, by Clark N. Quinn
April 29, 2014

Clark Quinn’s latest book raises a lot of questions about the trajectory of the learning and development field and offers advice about process, architecture, and strategy for moving the profession and our practice forward.

Seven Things eLearning Professionals Must Do Now
March 31, 2014

The buzz around talent and talent management, performance management, and human capital management (HCM) has grown to a building roar in 2013 and 2014. Is this important to eLearning professionals? How does it affect our work? This article opens the discussion of HCM in Learning Solutions Magazine and provides specific suggestions you should be implementing now.

IMS Global Learning Consortium: Interoperability Standards for Education
November 18, 2013

Interoperability is a major concern as platforms and technologies for learning proliferate. SCORM and the xAPI, LMSs, and LRSs came about because of attention from government and corporate organizations. But what about the education field? The IMS Global Learning Consortium provides guidance and support for learning technology in organizations worldwide.

Mobile Disruption and mLearnCon 2013
May 29, 2013

Mobile learning and support is challenging traditional models of learning that rely on courses. It is happening quickly, and the details can be overwhelming. “Business as usual” is not an effective strategy. The eLearning Guild’s mLearnCon 2013 will be extremely helpful to your efforts—here are some sessions you will want to consider attending for maximum benefit.

Open Badges: Portable Credentials for Learning
January 28, 2013

The next target of disintermediation is diplomas, certifications, and other “official” records of learning, skills, and knowledge. A number of organizations are promoting a credentialing approach that awards “badges” directly to learners from providers. Learners can maintain and publicly display their badge portfolios independent of employers. Read about these new initiatives here.

Supporting Critical Thinking in eLearning
January 21, 2013

eLearning design (and many authoring tools) may often support rote learning, recall of information, and acquisition of discrete skills, but not use of the information or skills to solve difficult problems, evaluate ideas, or settle arguments. Is there a way to use eLearning to develop or sharpen critical thinking skills? This article explores the question and suggests some answers.

Book Review: Teach Beyond Your Reach
January 15, 2013

In her significantly updated and expanded edition of Teach Beyond Your Reach, Robin Neidorf provides new and experienced distance educators with best practices and examples, an overview of tools and platforms, and strategies for dealing with key issues. Read the review here!

In Memoriam: Joe Harless
October 16, 2012

Joe Harless, a huge influence for decades on the field of performance improvement, passed away on October 4. We pause a moment to reflect on the man and his contributions.

Interview: Jason Calacanis on the Future of eLearning
October 3, 2012

In thinking about the future, it often helps to hear the way that someone from outside the eLearning community sees the way ahead. At mLearnCon 2012, we asked angel investor Jason Calacanis some questions about the future of eLearning and recorded his answers in a short video. You’ll find his vision and insights extremely challenging!

Book Review: Video Nation, by Jefferson Graham
September 25, 2012

Do you want to use video in your eLearning content, but don’t have thousands of dollars to spend on equipment, production, and post-production? Looking for help and ideas for short-form Web video? This is the book you need, written by an expert who has produced, edited, and hosted over 300 episodes of USA TODAY’s “Talking Tech” series.

Interview: B.J. Fogg on “Tiny Habits” and Learning
September 19, 2012

What we really should be concerned about in producing eLearning is “habit formation.” At mLearnCon 2012, Dr. B. J. Fogg challenged us to rethink what we are doing if we are not creating habits in users and learners. He showed how he is using mobile and social technology to create “tiny habits.” In this video interview, Dr. Fogg explains more about the technique.

The Resurgence of Performance Support: Allison Rossett
August 15, 2012

With the emergence of mobile devices and new understanding of the ways that people learn, performance support has become a “must-have” competence for instructional designers. What are the factors that led to this? Allison Rossett offers her insights.

The Impact and Role of Performance Support: Conrad Gottfredson
August 1, 2012

Organizations need to know that when employees finish the eLearning or training that we provide, those employees can perform. That’s what performance support does: it looks beyond learning to on-the-job performance.

“Bring Your Own Device”: Are You Ready?
June 4, 2012

Mobile device adoption, especially for smartphones and tablets, is moving quickly from early adopters to the early majority. This is leading to a “BYOD” (bring your own device) mindset among workers and employers alike. BYOD is only a good thing for organizations that have a strategy in place. Here are the strategy elements you need to support mobile learning.

Just One Question for Jeff Tillett: The Key to Good mLearning Design
May 23, 2012

Mobile devices offer unique opportunities for supporting learning and performance. We asked Jeff Tillett for his thoughts on designing instruction for mobile delivery.

Just One Question for Karen Soskin: Six Sigma and eLearning Development
April 25, 2012

Enterprises today are increasingly “projectized” – life in many enterprises is a “hairball,” according to Karen Soskin, and project management is the tool that tames that hairball. It is important that those who manage and participate in eLearning development be able to integrate into this methodology. Soskin explains the rationale in this video interview.

Book Review: Managing Projects, by Lou Russell
April 18, 2012

Project management is a critical competency for anyone in charge of the creation of eLearning, but it is difficult to find good advice tailored for this world. Lou Russell has written a definitive, practical guide to applying project management principles to the challenges of learning design and development.

Just One Question: Jeff Berk on Justifying Expensive Learning Initiatives
April 11, 2012

Some learning initiatives, whether eLearning, classroom, or blended, raise huge red flags for decision-makers because of expense, visibility, or strategic nature. Examples include programs dealing with leadership, onboarding or new hire, and sales, among others. In this video interview, Jeff Berk outlines best practices that apply in these cases.

Just One Question: Brenda Enders on Gamification
April 5, 2012

“Gamification” is a relatively new buzzword in application design, including eLearning. Many designers and developers aren’t quite sure what it means, or how to apply the concept in their work. Brenda Enders gives you great insights in this interview.

Book Review: The Mobile Academy, by Clark N. Quinn
November 16, 2011

In his second book this year on mobile learning, Clark Quinn has produced a concise and very practical guide to its strategy and implementation for administrators, instructional support staff, and faculty in higher education. It will also be useful as a quick overview for executives in other kinds of organizations as well.

Book Review: E-Learning by Design, 2nd Edition, by William Horton
November 11, 2011

E-Learning by Design, published in October of this year, is an update to William Horton’s 2006 book. Horton has reorganized the content, and added excellent sections on games, social networking, and mobile technology. This is a book that belongs in your library.

Book Review: 100 Things Every Online Student Ought to Know
October 28, 2011

Older students in online education may not be as conversant with Web technology for learning, and younger students may not have the necessary study skills. Here is a review of a small book that tries to provide support for both groups. If you are an online educator, this resource may be worth considering as part of your orientation efforts.

Book Review: The Online Learning Idea Book, Vol. 2
September 28, 2011

Volume 2 of Patti Shank's The Online Idea Book is now available. Continuing with the approach she used in Volume 1 four years ago, Patti has updated the book with over 80 new ideas from practitioners in the field, covering new approaches to online learning, such as the use of social media, new tools, and other innovations such as Pecha Kucha.

Digimodernism and Learning
August 15, 2011

Technology extends what we can do at work, at play, and in our careers. It also reorganizes relationships and culture. Designers who think effective use of mobile technology is just a matter of fitting learning content onto smaller screens, or who approach social media as just another learning delivery channel, may be missing the bigger picture. Here are some ideas to consider.

Review: Michael Allen's Successful e-Learning Interface
July 14, 2011

While User Interface (UI) guidelines help designers solve usability issues on Web sites, eLearning must satisfy a different set of needs in order to provide an effective experience for learners. This learner interface can be at odds with the UI requirements. The latest volume in Michael Allen’s e-Learning Library will guide you and your team safely through resolution of these conflicts.

Book Review: Consulting Basics by Joel Gendelman
June 28, 2011

Consulting is not a career for everyone, but if you are making a change in that direction, it would be good to have reliable advice that will help you get started. Here's a review of a book that can be your guide.

Book Review: Sharing Hidden Know-How, by Katrina B. Pugh
June 8, 2011

Efforts to learn from our own experience, as a way to become better organizationally, have not always worked out in recent years. It’s hard work to collect, catalog, and access “lessons learned,” and all too often the process has been over-complicated and time-consuming. Here is a review of what may possibly be the best approach to date for this essential activity.

Updated Classic: Peter Block's Flawless Consulting
June 2, 2011

Success in business is the result of paying attention to and understanding the emotional and personal dimensions of our workplaces. This goes doubly for consulting, whether as an internal agent of change or an external advisor. Peter Block shows you how to get there.

Book Review: Designing mLearning, by Clark N. Quinn
February 2, 2011

In this age of mobile devices, all of us in the learning field need to learn to think differently about what we do. Change is upon us, and Clark Quinn has produced a superb guide to help us meet the challenge of a strategic shift in our world.

Book Review: Virtual Presentations That Work by Joel Gendelman, Ed.D.
January 26, 2011

Experienced face-to-face presenters often have great difficulty learning to be effective in Webinars and other virtual presentation situations. If you have to teach managers, salespeople, and executives how to be compelling online presenters, this book is a great resource.

Book Review: The Mobile Learning Edge
December 29, 2010

Gary Woodill, senior analyst at Brandon Hall Research, has contributed a new book to the slowly growing library of books on mobile learning, The Mobile Learning Edge. Here’s a review.

Book Review: Tools of Engagement, by Tom Bunzel
October 14, 2010

As organizations adopt social media for corporate communications and marketing, e-Learning pros will need to help managers and executives learn about it. Here is a textbook that may help.

Book Review: Social Media for Trainers, by Jane Bozarth
September 15, 2010

One of the current big questions for many instructional designers and their managers is, “What about social media? Can Twitter, Facebook, and the like deliver and support learning?” Jane Bozarth shows you how in this new book.

Social Networking: A Platform for Training New Managers Online?
September 6, 2010

Adoption and use of social networking by younger workers, who will soon be managers and supervisors, is growing rapidly. How can you leverage this technology to ensure they are ready for their new duties?

Book Review: Learning Online with Games, Simulations, and Virtual Worlds: Strategies for Online Instruction by Clark Aldrich
January 5, 2010

Clark Aldrich has produced a great guide to the selection, justification, and development of Highly Interactive Virtual Environments. Readers will find it useful, whether they are new to design of such applications or highly experienced.

Visual Language for Designers: Principles for creating graphics that people understand, by Connie Malamed
November 7, 2009

How to design visuals that will totally engage your learners and add value to your e-Learning applications!

aLearning: A Trail Guide for Association Learning
July 20, 2009

Writers of books on instructional strategy have seldom addressed the design of online curriculum for professional and non-profit associations. A new book by Ellen Behrens has corrected that oversight, and the result is an outstanding contribution that may belong in your library even if you don’t work for an association!

Closing the Loop in e-Learning Development: How to reconnect instructional design and project management
October 11, 2004

This is the first in a series of columns that address the relationship between the generic life cycle of e-Learning and the documented processes of project management. The focus of this article is a high-level overview of ADDIE, the generic life cycle description applied to traditional learning materials, and on the generic project management life span. This will include highlighting key concepts.

Curriculum Planning and Knowledge Half-life
May 14, 2002

One striking idea that might help organize curriculum development is knowledge half-life. This is a simple notion with large potential impact on learning delivery. Here are some ideas that may help you manage delivery depending on whether half-life is long or short for a given set of knowledge.