Dr. Jane Bozarth is the Elearning Coordinator for the North Carolina, USA, Office of State Personnel. She is the author of ELearning Solutions on a Shoestring; Better than Bullet Points: Creating Engaging Elearning with PowerPoint; From Analysis to Evaluation: Tips, Tools, and Techniques for Trainers; and Social Media for Trainers, coming out in August 2010. She is a popular conference speaker and is frequently found at both live and online international events. She also serves as one of the moderators of the popular weekly Twitter event #lrnchat, Thursdays at 8:30 PM ET. She describes herself on Twitter profile as a rabid, feral, and tribal learner, World's Oldest Millenial, Positive Deviant, and Constructive Heretic. Jane Bozarth and her husband live in Durham, NC, USA.
Nuts and Bolts: What's the Reality? July 5, 2016
In the classroom, a good trainer can adjust instruction on the fly if it isn’t working for the employees, but this is a luxury not available to the eLearning designer. Here are some common issues in converting classroom training to online, and ideas that will help you make the online version realistic and relevant to the needs of workers.
Nuts and Bolts: Positive Deviance June 7, 2016
Among trainers, a common approach to deficient outcomes is to focus on finding and fixing the causes of the deficiencies. Yet in most communities, even where most members fail, there will be individuals or groups that succeed. An effective alternative approach is to find out what those who succeed are doing and to help others do the same. Here is an introduction to techniques that work!
Participant chat is a tool included in most virtual classroom products, yet it is underutilized. If you think of it as just a place for participants to chat, offer commentary, or ask questions, you are missing a golden opportunity to engage your audience! Here are seven incredibly productive ways to encourage the reluctant and avoid the “Anyone? Anyone?” moments.
How many issues do you face in delivering training to your organization? People widely dispersed geographically? Lack of learner availability? Employees who have to be covered across work shifts? No travel funds? If you aren’t using virtual meeting software to meet these challenges, maybe you should. Drop “webinar” from your vocabulary, and learn to use the virtual whiteboard! Here’s how!
Nuts and Bolts: The Cargo Cult of Training March 1, 2016
In Cargo Cult Training, the designer or the leader replicates what he saw teachers do, capturing the artifacts of instruction without understanding what’s underneath. This happens in classrooms and in online instruction. Why does it happen, and what can you do about it (or avoid falling into it yourself)? Here are some answers.
Nuts and Bolts: Read Up! February 2, 2016
Does an instructional designer or other training practitioner need a specialized degree in order to work effectively? There’s a lot of debate about this. You should read this article and Jane’s suggestions, and decide what works for you. There’s not just one answer.
Nuts and Bolts: Happy New Year 2016! January 5, 2016
“It’s my habit at years’ end to recap what had my attention over the past 12 months and tie the themes to resolutions— things to keep in mind going forward into the new year.”
Nuts and Bolts: Getting Organized December 1, 2015
Continuing the discussion of Richard Mayer’s “SOI” model (select, organize, integrate), this month’s column focuses on organizing information into meaningful wholes. Most slide-based authoring tools and old habits get us to think in terms of bullet points, but there are better ways! Here’s how to re-think content and concept information.
Nuts and Bolts: Give the Learner a Fighting Chance November 3, 2015
A constant challenge with eLearning (and face-to-face) courses is managing “overwhelm:” too often the learner is inundated with content and ideas and bullets and more content. Here’s how to select the really important information and present it in a way that helps learners focus and make sense of what they are seeing.
Nuts and Bolts: Social Media for Learning Part 2: What to Use When? And the Role of Community October 6, 2015
“Which tool should I use?” If you hate to hear that “it all depends,” this article may give you a new perspective on that answer: “The best tools are the ones you’ll use, that meet your particular goals and needs—and the ones your audience likes.”
Nuts and Bolts: Social Media for Learning Part 1: Extending, Including, Supporting September 1, 2015
In the four years since Jane’s column “Social Media for Learning” appeared here, the popular use of social media and tools that make it easy to generate and share images has exploded. This month’s column looks at some of the new ways you might extend your own practice through use of these social tools.
Nuts and Bolts: Art: Maximizing Your Resources August 4, 2015
Sometimes we find ourselves in a situation where we can either not do something at all, or we can figure out how to do it with no money. Many times this happens when it comes to finding art for our eLearning productions. Here are some tricks that will help you make the most of what you’ve got—for no money!
Accessibility in eLearning may be something that’s just isn’t on your radar—yet. Your eLearning materials should be accessible to everyone, including those with challenges like low vision and blindness, hearing loss and deafness, learning disabilities, and mobility problems. Here is a quick rundown on things you should be addressing in your design standards, and some help getting started.
Jane reminds us: “Job performance” goes beyond a particular task in a particular moment. A true and very personal story.
Nuts and Bolts: Causing Serendipity May 5, 2015
The story of the three princes of Serendip is more than an entertaining fable. It illustrates the limits of formal training, and the value of being able to learn something valuable from information that just came your way. You may not be looking for a lame, one-eyed camel that is missing a tooth and carrying an unusual cargo, but you might also learn something valuable from this column.
Nuts and Bolts: Leading a Horse to Water April 7, 2015
It’s a mistake that happens all the time: We lose sight of the objective and add in interesting bits, extraneous fun. Or we spend time teaching the wrong skill. Here are a couple of cautionary tales about the need to be careful when you define your outcomes.
Nuts and Bolts: The Story in the Slide Deck March 3, 2015
Editing your own work or the work of your subject matter experts (SMEs) is an important activity for instructional designers, but it takes focus to do it well. Here are some tips that will help you become a ruthless editor!
Nuts and Bolts: Blame the Learner February 3, 2015
Beliefs about learners can show up in an instructional designer’s work, often unwittingly. Sometimes it’s the beliefs of an SME or the client, sometimes it’s the designer’s assumptions. In online content converted from classroom materials, it can be the original designer’s unchallenged beliefs. This month, Jane looks at some ways assumptions and beliefs affect design decisions.
Nuts and Bolts: Happy New Year 2015 January 6, 2015
Here’s a review of the themes that stand out in Jane’s columns from 2014, to provide a launch pad for your work in 2015.
Nuts and Bolts: Expand Your Surface Area December 2, 2014
At DevLearn 2010, John Seely Brown urged each of us to “expand your surface area”—in other words, to stretch our personal bubble of experience and ideas to other domains, beyond immediate work interests. Here are some suggestions that might prove useful in helping you push past the boundaries of your daily line of sight.
Nuts and Bolts: Figure It Out November 4, 2014
In the United States Marine Corps, “improvise, adapt, overcome” has become an adopted motto in many units. It should be our motto in eLearning, considering all the times things don’t go the way we planned or the way we wish they would. Sometimes you just gotta punt.
Nuts and Bolts: Instructional Design for the Real World October 7, 2014
Textbooks and graduate courses on training and development sometimes suggest practices that are too good to be true in the real world where instructional designers live. Here are seven tips that are better matched to the challenges of our work.
Nuts and Bolts: Needs Assessment Basics September 2, 2014
Needs assessment is critical to success in instructional design, but it is often left out for no good reason. (Expediency is not a sufficient excuse.) Here are a baker’s dozen of questions to ask.
Nuts and Bolts: What You Measure Is What You Get August 5, 2014
“What gets measured gets done” and “If you don’t measure it, you can’t improve it” are two management maxims that have been around so long nobody is sure who said them first. But what is certain is that it’s not as simple as just starting to measure something. Here are two questions that will help you avoid bad measures.
Nuts and Bolts: Reflective Practice July 1, 2014
Professional development—our own, personal, professional development—is one of the most important things we can invest in. This isn’t a matter of paying money, necessarily, but of paying time and attention on a regular, even daily, basis to consciously becoming better at what you do. How? Reflective practice. Reading this column could be the best thing you do for yourself today.
Nuts and Bolts: Lean Solutions June 3, 2014
One of the never-ending quests in eLearning is the zero-cost, 10-minute-to-build solution. As our tools and technologies evolve, this may not be the impossible dream that it once seemed to be. Jane explores lean eLearning and the tools to create it that are available to you today.
Nuts and Bolts: How (and Why) to Show Your Work May 6, 2014
For several years, Jane has been intrigued by the possibilities that doing better at showing our work could have for organizations, for each other, and for our own professional development. In this column on the practice of showing others what you are doing, she gives you concrete examples and compelling reasons for working out loud.
Nuts and Bolts: Spaces April 1, 2014
For a change of pace, here’s a look at the new school of medicine building at Duke University. There’s plenty of technology, but it’s secondary to the learning experience that it supports. What would you do if money were no object? What would you do if you had no money but you had a vision?
Nuts and Bolts: Expectations March 4, 2014
How can you spark a conversation between 12,000 employees in 66 countries … simultaneously? Kimberly- Clark did it, and it worked because they recognized that if you want people to really connect via social tools you’ll allow room for human conversation. Just like in “real life.” Read about the experience, and the unexpected outcomes here!
Nuts and Bolts: Building Community February 4, 2014
The rise of social media and the accompanying interest in social learning is generating a lot of talk about community building. Many people voice similar concerns in these conversations, and at the same time there are many things that never come up as topics for discussion. Here are some suggestions for keeping the never-heard items from killing a community.
Nuts and Bolts: Happy New Year 2014 January 7, 2014
As 2013 fades away, take time to remember and apply what we learned. Here’s a summary of some key ideas from Nuts and Bolts.
Nuts and Bolts: Directions December 3, 2013
One of the most basic, seemingly most simple, elements of instruction—giving directions—seems like it ought to be so easy. Unfortunately, “simple” often turns out to be anything but “easy.” Giving clear instructions is something of an art, and here are some resources to support mastering it.
Nuts and Bolts: Making Video More Social November 5, 2013
Video plays a big part in classroom instruction; instructors lead learners through discussion and processing of the content. But video in eLearning is most often passive: no discussion or processing. By setting the stage, encouraging comments, asking for reaction, and giving the camera to the learner, you can turn video back into an engaging, socially facilitated activity. Here’s how!
Nuts and Bolts: Crooked Lines October 1, 2013
We know, as designers, that a bulleted, text-heavy display of information is neither interesting nor compelling to most learners. What would make for an interesting or surprising look? What would break beyond the usual linear, bullets-in-a column structure? Consider the alternatives from designer Tracy Parish suggested in this month’s column.
Nuts and Bolts: Don't Blame Your Content September 2, 2013
A good treatment moves a program from being a presentation to being an effective way to influence workplace performance. Here are two outstanding examples of better-than-good treatment that don’t depend on technology, money, or skill with any tool. This column could seriously change the direction of careers.
Nuts and Bolts: Instructional Design 101—Be a Learner August 6, 2013
Steve Jobs once made the observation that diverse experience is important. Without that diversity, he said, “A lot of people … don't have enough dots to connect, and they end up with very linear solutions without a broad perspective on the problem. The broader one's understanding of the human experience, the better design we will have.” Here’s how to gain some perspective.
Nuts and Bolts: How to Be an Overnight Success July 2, 2013
Good practice is made up of work, and thought, and mistakes, and time. Things that look easy in the hands of a skilled professional are often the end result of years of practice and experience. Jane offers some sobering thoughts about what it takes to make things look easy.
Nuts and Bolts: How to Deal with Barriers June 4, 2013
Change management is always a large part of introducing new tools and approaches. In fact, logic and talking points are seldom effective in dealing with resistance. It is important to understand the barriers to change and their predictable progression. Here are the barriers you can expect and the keys to getting past them.
Nuts and Bolts: We Need New Words May 7, 2013
We need new words. They might have to be neologisms, or even sniglets, but we are doing many things these days in ways that we never did them before, and so there are no words for them. Jane reflects on three such instances. Can you supply the words?
Nuts and Bolts: Design Assessments First April 2, 2013
The matter of assessment is one of the most consistent problems I see with instructional design. The disconnect between workplace performance, course performance objectives, assessment, and content is a huge contributor to learner failure.” Here’s a simple way to fix that disconnect.
Nuts and Bolts: What Is “Good” eLearning, Anyway? March 5, 2013
Does an eLearning production have to exemplify Hollywood-level production values and adhere to every criterion of good taste in order for people to learn from it? Maybe not. This month, Jane gets down to the heart of the matter—what it really takes for eLearning to be “good.”
Nuts and Bolts: Seeing the Forest February 5, 2013
Those who are closest to a situation can be the last to notice a problem when it exists. Experts can have trouble getting beyond their expertise to find a better solution. Here’s a way to solve the old instructional design paradox: When you can’t see the forest for the trees.
Nuts and Bolts: Happy New Year 2013 January 2, 2013
Many of us start a new year with resolve to do better things and to do things better. Jane kicks off 2013 for Learning Solutions Magazine with three excellent resolutions and some concrete suggestions about how to make good on them.
Nuts and Bolts: Content Becomes its Own Context December 4, 2012
Concepts sometimes map over from one field of human activity to another, and the result of the juxtaposition can be a better understanding of both fields. In this month’s column, Jane offers her review of a new book about the music business in which she found many parallels to the learning and development business, and the insights she gained.
Nuts and Bolts: Metaphors November 6, 2012
What are your metaphors about teaching and learning? How do they affect your practice?
Nuts and Bolts: Assessing the Value of Online Interactions October 2, 2012
There is no magic formula for assessing the value of social interactions; no formula like “two hours on LinkedIn + four comments in groups = tangible outcomes for the organization.” So how do you know time spent using social media isn’t wasted? Jane has some ideas you can use.
Nuts and Bolts: Unlearning September 4, 2012
Learning can be difficult, but unlearning is the real challenge. Whether as students or teachers, we have to adapt and be as willing to unlearn as to learn.
Nuts and Bolts: Narrating Our Work August 7, 2012
Here’s a true story about physical rehab turned learning turned hobby turned community of practice turned two successful businesses, all via informal, social means. And all within six months.
Nuts and Bolts: Storyboarding Basics July 3, 2012
Storyboarding your eLearning program makes a real difference in the quality of eLearning. It helps you organize your thoughts, ensures logical flow, contributes to reduced costs, and provides an excellent way to test your ideas. Storyboarding will also support branching and simulations, eliminating the “click here to continue” linear pattern typical of boring, ineffective eLearning.
Nuts and Bolts: Upskilling June 5, 2012
Progress in media brings new challenges for instructional designers. Where just five short years ago we struggled with authoring tools and content management, we now face new demands for making programs more inclusive of learners, leveraging informal learning, and building a farther reach for the L&D department. Here are your keys to the architecture and organization skills needed!
Nuts and Bolts: Selling It May 1, 2012
We all know that people hate change, and yet we are continually surprised that decision-makers have (apparently insuperable) objections to our ideas for applying technology. Maybe it’s our approach that’s the problem. Jane offers some ways to improve our pitches.
Nuts and Bolts: How Can We Know What We Don't Know? April 3, 2012
Following up on last month’s column (“Build or Buy?”), here’s practical advice on dealing with the common misunderstandings of in-house decision makers about outsourcing. Read it, see it, try it, and know what you want.
Nuts and Bolts: Buy or Build? March 6, 2012
Is it always necessary to create a custom, in-house solution? Jane looks at the cases when an outsourced or off-the-shelf product makes more sense, and provides a job aid.
Nuts and Bolts: Opportunity Knocks? January 31, 2012
Formal design process gets a lot of attention, but not every problem requires the full treatment. Consider first what your client needs, before you start working on what the process flow chart requires, and when the problem is simple, keep the solution simple. Jane offers the key to remedies for performance issues.
Nuts and Bolts: New Year's Resolutions, 2012 January 3, 2012
By all indications, 2012 is going to be a year of some major transitions in the way we develop and deliver eLearning. However, this should not distract any of us from the fundamentals that support actual learning. Jane offers some suggestions for resolutions that will keep us all on the right track.
Nuts and Bolts: Inviting Interaction December 6, 2011
Instead of asking how to manage informal learning and which tools to use, ask yourself whether you are inviting interaction, and how. Here are some excellent ways to make informal learning more visible to both managers and employees, and to invite interaction and develop something more akin to a partnership with your learners.
Nuts and Bolts: Required Reading November 1, 2011
Even though it’s a digital world for readers of this e-zine, most of us still enjoy good old analog professional conferences and the opportunity to speak face-to-face with our colleagues and heroes. And even more – the secret love of many of us is browsing physical books in the conference bookstores! Jane suggests some great tomes to browse and add to your resources.
Nuts and Bolts: Social Media for Learning October 4, 2011
What's the difference between social media and social learning? How are you using each of them in your organization? This month's article addresses these questions and provides an overview of The eLearning Guild's new Report, Social Media for Learning.
Nuts and Bolts: The 10-Minute Instructional Design Degree September 6, 2011
There are heated debates about whether every instructional designer should have formal training, and about the pros and cons of academic instructional design programs. But in the meantime, you have to get the work done. Here are eight basic points that every instructional designer should commit to memory.
Nuts and Bolts: What's Your Story? August 2, 2011
In Learning Solutions Magazine, a number of authors have suggested using stories to support learning. Sometimes managers object to the idea of using stories as being too touchy-feely. Here’s a new way to look at the process, and some words to replace “story.”
Have you heard of Bloom’s Taxonomy, the system for getting your learning objectives to specify measureable outcomes? Here’s a quick summary and a great job aid for instructional designers.
Nuts and Bolts: “Let The Learners Hold The Spoon” June 7, 2011
Most designers know that eLearning must engage the learner through activity. This does not mean simply having them choose the “Next” button, and it does not necessarily require offering an interactive simulation. The answer can be very simple, as Jane shows in her column.
Moving an existing classroom course to online delivery is the way many eLearning initiatives get started. It is also, unfortunately, the way that many initiatives get off to a bad start, or even fail. Jane provides great tips for successful transformation of learning – you can apply them to your first effort, or to any conversion project.
Trainers and instructional designers have professional development needs too! Social media tools can be as powerful for solving your information and skill needs as they are for your learners’ needs. Here is the way to develop your own Personal Learning Network. It’s simple, and it’s free!
One of the most important things instructional designers do is interview subject matter experts (SMEs). It is also one of the most difficult things to do well. Jane offers insight from her experience to help you improve your results.
Nuts and Bolts: SURPRISE! February 1, 2011
Every instructional designer knows that it’s important to engage the learner. With certain types of content, this is easier said than done, and sometimes our own design standards work against us. Jane shows you how to avoid boring your learners stiff.
Nuts and Bolts: 2011 Resolutions January 4, 2011
Making New Year’s Resolutions? Jane suggests ten for your consideration, from eliminating Clicky Clicky Bling Bling to dealing with clients who have made up their minds.
Nuts and Bolts: Useful Interactions and Meaningful Feedback December 7, 2010
Thought and creativity can turn weak assessments and interactions into feedback that is actually useful to the learner. Here is some practical wisdom about what helps, what supports and what guides, and what supports gain – and how to avoid doing harm.
Nuts and Bolts: Do You See? November 1, 2010
Simple design basics can make or break a program. Choices related to fonts, placement of content on a screen, and application of an organization’s standards like number of screens matter. Jane tackles color issues this month.
Nuts and Bolts: How to Evaluate e-Learning October 5, 2010
Evaluation is something that every instructional designer talks about, but few actually do. This may be because designers only know about the Kirkpatrick “Levels.” Here are two alternatives that may be far more practical.
Nuts and Bolts: Too Many Tools September 7, 2010
Cognitive overload – too much information – is one type of problem for learners. Another type of problem that designers can create for learners is too many distractions from too many tools. Here’s how to recognize the problem, and what to do about it.
Designers often overload learners with information, hurting learning and learner motivation, and thereby undercutting the very thing we say we want to accomplish. A designer can avoid this by understanding cognitive load theory and memory; in particular, the concepts of working memory and long term memory. Here’s some applied theory you can put to work immediately!
“When developing and launching a new training initiative – traditional classroom, virtual classroom, asynchronous, or a mix – or suggesting a training solution for an individual worker or group, it’s vital to gain management commitment. As with so many issues in training and development, this is another of those “easier said than done” challenges.
Nuts and Bolts: Find Your 20% June 8, 2010
Good practice in instructional design means being aware of cognitive overload and avoiding it – in other words, not giving learners more than they can handle, and certainly not more than they will use. This month, Jane gives you a strategy (and a visualization!) for dealing with the desire to include everything and the kitchen sink in your e-Learning design.
“I wish that the ‘e-Learning’ business had started with this book … before online training as an industry managed to replicate the very worst elements of the traditional classroom experience. I wish this book as a starter gift: a new person starting with this would not accept flying lines of text supported by word-for-word narration as anything resembling a learning experience.”
Some of the most frequently asked questions among instructional designers are the ones dealing with text, images, and narration and how best to use them together. There are many examples of combinations that do not work, but not so many explanations of the principles behind making the right choices. Here is a simple explanation of three of the most important principles.
Putting People First: Human Issues in Instructional Technology, by Anastasia Marie Trekles April 16, 2010
“ … a readable, solid, extensive, exhaustive, approachable work tightly focused on the position and needs of the learner in the learning experience. Much content focuses on accessibility as it relates to assorted permanent or temporary impairments … but a good deal more of the book is germane to the user-first perspective of any learner.”
Nuts and Bolts: When Training Works April 6, 2010
One of the most-discussed sessions at Learning Solutions 2010 was “The Great ADDIE Debate,” a conversation about the 21st-century relevance of the ADDIE process model (Analyze-Design-Develop-Implement-Evaluate), so often employed in instructional design. Rather than declare ADDIE dead, wouldn’t it make more sense to be sure that we are using it properly? Here’s a simple method to do just that.
Jay Cross and his friends have updated Jay’s unbook on informal learning, to reflect the movement of learning into the Internet Cloud. There are checklists, tools, images, charts, and provocative questions that bring the issue down to ground level.
This new addition to ASTD’s Infoline series is intended for American instructional designers who create instruction for delivery in another part of the world.